This sensor is designed to measure the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Range: 0 to 50,000 ppm
Accuracy: ±20 % of reading
Response Time: 90 % of full-scale reading in 120 s
Warm-up Time: 5 minutes
Operating Temperature Range: -10 to 50 °C
Operating Humidity Range: 5 to 95 % RH
Storage Temperature Range: -20 to 60 °C
Storage Humidity Range: 5 to 90 % RH
Input Voltage: 5 VDC ± 0.25 VDC
The CO2 Gas Sensor was used to monitor the amount of CO2 in a bottle containing several tens of small beetles. The graph shows that the amount of CO2 increased gradually over time, demonstrating that the beetles did produce CO2.
This sensor is designed to determine the concentration of solution by analyzing its color intensity.
Single Range: 0 % to 100 % Transmittance
Wavelengths: 465 nm, 520 nm & 625 nm
The Colorimeter was used to measure the amount of light transmitted through a series of calibrated solutions. A calibration curve can thereby be obtained to determine the concentration of an unknown solution.
The sensor is designed to measure either solution conductivity or total ion concentration of aqueous samples.
Low Range: 0 to 400 μS/cm
Mid Range: 0 to 4,000 μS/cm
High Range: 0 to 40,000 μS/cm
Accuracy: ±1 % of operating range
Operating Temperature: 0 to 80 °C
Electrode Type: Epoxy, graphite surface
The Conductivity Sensor was used to measure the concentration of ions in the water surrounding a piece of salt-infused agar cube. The concentration of ions in water increased gradually due to diffusion. The rate of diffusion depends on the surface area to volume ratio of the agar cube.
This sensor is designed to measure the amount of oxygen dissolved in liquid.
Single Range: 0 to 20 mg/l
Accuracy: ±2 % of full scale
The Dissolved Oxygen Sensor was used to study photosynthesis carried out by water plants. The graph shows that the amount of dissolved oxygen increases over time, thereby demonstrating that the water plants had carried out photosynthesis.
This Drop Counter Platform is able to count the number of drops of liquid falling from a burette. It is specially designed to house neatly several sensors such as pH Sensor, Temperature Sensor and Conductivity Sensor as well as a burette to facilitate titration experimentations.
Input Voltage: 5 VDC ± 0.25 V
Light Source: 875 nm infrared
The Drop Counter Platform was used to monitor the volume of titrant added to the analyte during titration. The red graph on the left shows the change in volume when a known concentration of acid is gradually dripped into an unknown concentration of alkaline. The graph on the right shows the graph of pH versus volume.
This sensor is designed to measure force and is able to indicate whether the force is a push or pull.
Low Range: -10 to 10 N
High Range: -50 to 50 N
Resolution: 0.01 N for low range & 0.05 N for high range
The Force Sensor was used to measure the tension of a spring attached to a ball oscillating vertically. The graph on the left shows the variation in tension over a sufficiently long period demonstrating a decrease in the amplitude of oscillation over time. The graph on the right shows the details demonstrating force’s variation with time in a sinusoidal fashion.
The Gas Pressure Sensor was used to measure the change in gas pressure when potato’s enzyme catalysed the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. The graphs show the rates of change in gas pressure with substrates of different enzyme concentrations.
This sensor is designed to measure the intensity of light.
Low Range: 0 to 5,000 Lux
High Range: 0 to 130,000 Lux
Accuracy: ±4 % of the reading obtained
The Light Sensor was used to measure the light intensity in a room after a fluorescent lamp had been switched on. The graph shows that the intensity of fluorescent light was not stationary but rose and fell in a periodic manner.
This sensor is designed to measure magnetic field strength.
Low Range: -4.2 to 4.2 Gauss
Medium Range: -84 to 84 Gauss
High Range: -630 to 630 Gauss
Resolution: 0.01 Gauss for low range, 0.21 Gauss for medium range & 2.1 Gauss for high range
The Magnetic Field Sensor was used to measure the magnetic field near a long coil before and after current was directed into it. The graph shows that the magnetic field strength increases considerably after current flowed into the coil.
This sensor is designed to measure and track the distance of a moving object, thereby facilitating computation of velocity and acceleration.
Low Range: 0.15 to 1.6 m
High Range: 0.4 to 10 m
Accuracy: ±0.5 mm for low range and ±2.5 mm for high range
The Motion Sensor was used to monitor the motion of a bouncing ball. The graph on the left shows the distance of the ball versus time, the middle graph shows velocity versus time and the graph on the right shows acceleration versus time.
Response Time : <15 seconds to 95 % of final value
Pressure Coefficient : <0.02 % signal/mBar
Pressure range : Atmospheric ±10 %
Input Voltage : 5 VDC ± 0.25 VDC
The Oxygen Gas Sensor was used to monitor oxygen’s level in a bottle containing several tens of small beetles. The graph shows that oxygen’s level gradually reduced over time, demonstrating that the beetles did consume oxygen.
This sensor is designed to determine quantitatively the acidity/alkalinity of a solution in terms of the pH value.
Single Range: 0 to 14 pH
Accuracy: pH ± 0.1 (after proper calibration)
Temperature Range: 5 to 60 °C
Insertion Length: 90 mm
Diameter of Electrode: 10 mm
The pH Sensor was used to monitor the change in pH during titration. The green graph on the left showed the change in pH when a known concentration of acid is gradually dripped into an unknown concentration of alkaline. The graph on the right showed the graph of pH versus volume.
This sensor is designed to detect whether there is something in between the two ends of it.
Output: > 4.0V (Blocked); < 1.0V (Unblocked)
Light Source: Infra-Red with peak wavelength at 875 nm
The graph shows the output of the Photogate versus time when a pendulum was made to swing between it. The period of the pendulum can be readily determined by the time difference between 2 consecutive falling edges.
This sensor is designed to measure the power density of radiation’s emitted by mobile phones.
Single Range: -30 to 20 dBm
Frequency Range: 50 MHz to 2 GHz
The Radio Wave Sensor was placed near a mobile phone to monitor the radiation that it emitted. The phone was switched on but stayed idle initially. Then someone called and the phone rang for a while before the owner answered. After a short conversation, the owner hung up the phone letting it stay idle again. The graph above shows the change in radiation versus time.
This sensor is designed to measure linear/angular displacement, which facilitates computations of linear/angular velocity and acceleration. It can be used for a great variety of experimentations including those with regard to linear/angular momentum, rotational inertia, linear/angular kinematics, torque, simple harmonic motion and damped oscillation, etc..
Linear Range : -1000 mm to 1000 mm Resolution: 0.1 mm (high resolution) or 1.6 mm (low resolution)
Maximum Speed: 1 rev/s (high resolution) or 16 rev/s (low resolution)
The green graph shows the angular displacement of a rotating disc mounted on the rotary sensor. The red graph shows its angular velocity obtained through a differentiation of the graph of angular displacement.
This sensor is designed to measure the amplitude of sound wave impinging on it. Unlike those commonly available plastic microphones that can be easily twisted, its stainless steel body is solid and rugged.
Single Range: 20 to 20,000 Hz
Sensitivity: -58 dB ± 3 dB
The Sound Sensor was used to measure “Ah” sounds produced by a person. The graph shows the variation of sound’s amplitude over time.
The Surface Temperature Sensor is designed for use in situations in which low thermal mass or flexibility is required, or for measuring the surface temperature of an object, such as skin temperature measurement.
The sensor has an exposed thermistor, and this results in an extremely rapid response time.
This sensor is designed to measure temperature. Its stainless steel’s body can withstand corrosiveness that chemicals may introduce.
Single Range: -20 to 120 °C
Accuracy: ±1 °C
Sensor Type: NTC Thermistor
Sensor Body: Stainless Steel (SS316)
Body Length: 178 mm ± 2 mm
Body Diameter: 4 mm
The Temperature Sensor was used to obtain the cooling curves of hot water. The graph in red corresponds to one obtained with hot water in a bare cup while that in green obtained with a cup wrapped with cloth.